Definitions

AMA Style: The American Medical Association's AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors is commonly used in medical and health-care research. See definition of Style Guide below.

AP Style: The Associated Press Stylebook is commonly used by newspapers and other general-audience publications, particularly where where space is considered premium. See definition of Style Guide below.

APA Style: The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is commonly used in academic writing and publishing in the social and behavioral sciences. See definition of Style Guide below.

Chicago Manual: Published by the University of Chicago Press, the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is widely used by book publishers and humanities scholars as well as by some periodicals and magazines. See definition of Style Guide below.

Closed Punctuation: This is a general approach to punctuation adopted by the editors of documents in which precise meaning and lack of ambiguity are paramount. This approach generally favors more punctuation rather than less. It's prevalent in legal documents, business documents, and instruction manuals. See definition of Open Punctuation below.

Copyediting: Light editing for consistency, flow, correct grammar, diction, and formatting. Includes proofreading. Does not address content, but does involve some revision in phrasing and word choice.

ESL: English as a second language. 

Line Editing: Typical in long-form journalism for feature articles. This is the editorial stage where issues of content and overall structure have been decided but the writing, line by line, may still be rough, with inconsistencies in logic, missing attributions, etc.  

MLA: The Modern Language Association of America's style guide is commonly used in humanities research. See definition of Style Guide below.

Open Punctuation: This approach to punctuation is used most often in creative writing or in documents intended to be less formal than business documents, instruction manuals, etc. Open punctuation favors a less-is-more approach and is often seen in journalism and literature. See definition of Closed Punctuation above.

Proofreading: Corrects typos, errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and formatting, with minimal changes in wording.

Structural Editing: Addresses the content and structure of a document of any length.

Style: Refers to rules governing the use of grammar, punctuation, and diction. In this website we generally follow the rules of the Chicago Manual of Style, though we deviate from these rules when the do not suit our needs. The key consideration is to be consistent. 

Style Guides: A style guide is a manual that defines rules relating to spelling, grammar, the usage of particular words, formatting, etc. Publishers, websites, and businesses often will choose to follow a well-known style guide. Additionally, an organization often will create its own style rules as addendum. Example: AP (Associated Press) style spells out the numbers one through nine in text, but a printing company may choose to spell out the numbers one through twenty, while following other rules published in the AP Style Guide.

Turabian: The common name for a style guide formally titled A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Written by Kate Turabian, this style guide is based on the Chicago Manual of Style. See definition of Style Guide above; see also the definition for Chicago Manual of Style

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